Appendix 1. The Michael Llenos Paradox. An Original Physics Paradox taken from The Holy Koran. Inspired by Albert Einstein. The ML Paradox refutes the philosophical idea of Materialism: The idea that the Universe is composed of matter that has always existed.

"Is the universe infinite in size? Is time, itself, infinite in length? How was the universe created? Where does matter, that enters Black Holes, go to? Hopefully, the following paper (Appendix 1) will be able to posit some exciting new answers to some of mankind's greatest questions...."

I want to point out that in The Holy Koran 13:8 it talks about how God placed a finite amount to everything. The Koran therefore supports my two beliefs: 1) that the Universe had a beginning (since time is finite), and 2) that an infinite number of objects are impossible to exist inside of the Universe. Meaning, there cannot be an infinite number of Universes, since Universes are objects as well.

The Michael Llenos Paradox

If you place within the Universe an infinite number of apples, and if you took those infinite number of apples out of the Universe, and replaced them with an infinite number of apple seeds: you could have more of an infinite number of apple seeds (added to the Universe) than an infinite number of apples since you could add more apple seeds to that left over space.

1) The reason is that "the smaller an object’s dimensions are in space, the more of that object can exist in space” compared with any object with bigger dimensions. And since the infinite is one constant number, an infinite number of objects in our Universe could not exist since you could always have more of a number of smaller objects. Meaning, it is impossible for an infinite number of objects to exist in our Universe since there is always the possibility that more amounts of increasingly smaller objects could always replace its previous larger objects.

A) Therefore, 1) there cannot be an infinite number of objects in our Universe, and 2) there cannot be an infinite number of Universes (since Universes are also classified as objects [albeit bigger objects]). Plus, if you did this calculation with space instead of matter, an infinite amount of space is impossible where there is matter (since an infinite amount of space must be that amount of space with no greater amount of space; and matter takes up and displaces space); so the Universe cannot be infinite in size. So really the only possible place for the number: "the infinite” to exist in all existence would be in God’s economy of imagination, or in his infinite-omniscient economy of mind.

B) Therefore the Koran proves that our Universe is finite and that it was created by a First Cause: that First Cause being God the Creator. In the Koran 13:8, the text implies that everything in our Universe is finite, and that everything in our Universe must always be finitely measured by everyone. Now this is logically proven to be the case.

Additional Notation from Part Three of my Philosophy book:

The Michael Llenos Paradox and Time: Why does Time not have an infinite number to it? [2012]

1) Because there would exist an infinite number of hours inside of infinite time--and if you divided those same hours into an infinite number of minutes--there would exist more infinite number of minutes (in infinite time) than an infinite number of hours (in infinite time).

2) However, this would be impossible if both divisions of time (meaning: hours and minutes) existed inside of infinite time--which they would have to.

3) Therefore, there exists only a finite amount of time in our Universe.

Why Albert Einstein was correct concerning the impossibility of a spacecraft reaching The Speed of Light

1) If a spacecraft, reaching the speed of light, were to obtain an infinite mass (which is impossible according to Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity), it is possible that you could divide that infinite mass into an infinite amount of solar-masses.

2) However, there could be many times more Earth-masses than solar-masses in that same infinite amount of mass: since, an Earth-mass is many times less (in mass) than a solar-mass, when comparing: the mass of our Earth with the mass of our Sun. In this case, the Michael Llenos Paradox applies as well.

3) So how could it be possible for a spacecraft to obtain an infinite mass? For an infinite mass would be that amount of mass with no greater amount of mass. For an infinite amount of Earth-masses would be more in number than an infinite amount of solar-masses: such a thing being impossible in our Universal reality.

[For an infinite amount of anything can be divided into an infinite number of things. To be divided into more than an infinite number of things is impossible. For the number the infinite must always be static and not alterable. If it were alterable, it would be a finite number and not an infinite one.]

4) That being said an infinite amount of mass cannot exist in our Universe: only a finite amount of mass. Therefore, the speed of light barrier, by a spacecraft, cannot be obtained, according to Einstein, since an infinite amount of mass can never be obtained in our Universe.

5) By the way, I am not saying that it is impossible to achieve the speed of light. I am, rather, saying that it is impossible to achieve the speed of light; or even to come close to it, if one initially has positive mass.

[To achieve the speed of light in a vehicle, one's vehicle would have to be surrounded by a bubble that creates zero or negative mass for oneself and one's vehicle in the universe.]

In Summary:

1) Any infinite mass, time, or matter, could be divided into an infinite amount of parts. However, anything smaller or lesser than its previous counterparts could be divided into more than an infinite amount of parts. But this is impossible since an infinite amount of anything is: 'that which there can be no greater amount of that thing'. Therefore an infinite amount of mass, time, or matter cannot exist in our finite Universe.

2) The ML Paradox also refutes Giordano Bruno's theory of an infinite universe. But how? Compare two universes that supposedly have infinite space. Giordano's version has a man shooting an arrow that either goes on forever or that hits successive walls forever. His universe is filled with stars and galaxies. The other universe has nothing in it but infinite space. Only the latter universe, of course, can be infinite but not the former universe. That is because an infinite universe is that universe that has no greater amount of space. And matter both takes up and displaces space. So any universe with matter in it cannot be infinite in size. In fact, just the fact that you are reading this writing is proof enough that the universe is not infinite in size.

Putting the ML Paradox into a Physics Equation

1) I have little training in math, and I have no training in physics. I would love for an expert in physics: student, professor, or grade school instructor to put the ML Paradox into a Physics Equation. I think it would go something like this:

2) One area of the Universe composed of apples is the same as one equal area of the Universe composed of apple seeds.

3) And one area of an infinite Universe composed of apples (or apple seeds) would be equivalent to all of the other same equal areas of an infinite Universe that make up that infinite dimension.

4) Meaning, if one cubed volume of infinite space can house more apple seeds than apples, this is the same for any other volume of the same size of cubed volume of space in all of an infinite Universe.

5) [However, some may comment that previously I said that once an infinite amount of space (the same thing as an infinite Universe) has any matter inside itself it is no longer an infinite amount of space. However, for the equation's sake, we are not taking this into account.]

6) So therefore there can be more infinite number of apple seeds in an infinite space, or infinite Universe, than the same number of apples in that infinite Universe.

Note: I have also devised a way one could scientifically test the ML Paradox at the bottom of this page.

Note: But what are the practical applications of the ML Paradox?

1) One field involves bioengineering. The ML Paradox implies that all things can be divided into smaller sized lengths forever because there exists a finite measure to everything in the Universe. A plant part cannot replace an egg yolk (or an egg white) at all its lower endless lengths. That is because an egg and a plant both have different structural components that regress smaller forever; therefore, a plant can never replace an egg totally, just at higher levels. Remember, the terms infinite and forever mean two different things. Infinite means the last number that transcends finite time. And forever means an endless addition (or endless subtraction) within the boundaries of finite time.

2) Another field involves astrophysics. There is a current theory about one aspect about black holes: that most of the universal matter that passes past its event horizon gets squished into an infinitely small mass inside its singularity. However, anything infinitely small cannot add anything to it, since it cannot become even more small. And the infinite is a number, large or small, which has no greater degree of numbers. So an infinitely small amount of mass would have to shed excess mass to stay infinitely small if any mass was added to it. And if there is no easy evacuation of this mass then the black hole, like a plugged toilet, would eventually acquire so much excess mass in its singularity that it would stop functioning all together. For the jet and counter jet and Hawking Radiation of a black hole would not be able to eject enough mass out of its singularity to keep the black hole functioning normally. But all of the matter back piled inside a black hole's singularity has to go somewhere. And I believe that matter time travels to the beginning of the universe as antimatter, colliding with primordial matter, creating the Big Bang.

Note on how the smallest particles Time Travel backwards: People may think that although degrading smaller and smaller would be endless for us: and it would be for us, since finite time controls us, that God himself, through the reduction of a chair, could see infinity in that chair: so that there exists infinity in everything and not just in that chair. But it is my belief that this is not the case.

[It is my belief that you could only degrade, if you had the power of God, to the smallest particle ever: a finite grain of space-time. But if you would degrade further you would degrade to a past grain of space-time; and then even further to an earlier period until you reached The Big Bang itself, since space-time is warped, but most likely not to the First Cause itself. For the object before the First Cause is God before finite time. So one would have to transcend the past, to get to the infinite; and transcend the future, to get to the infinite, to get to either the beginning or the end, in that order. For only our infinite God can see the beginning and the end; and, only he is the beginning and only he is the end. However, the grain of space-time itself is so small that one wonders how many barriers there are to get to it, and if a civilization could reach it, and how many barriers there exists for someone to enter into the past. It is my belief that a human being would have to transcend the micro-universe to get to a grain of space-time and beyond it. And that is something the present will not allow us to do.]

More on the ML Paradox

1. As the Koran says, everything is finite in the universe.

2. So the further down you go in particle-matter (or Quantum Theory) the more particles slow down, become still, inert, then finally retrograde backwards in time. If this is so, then a black hole (if you can survive its gravitational pull) can make you travel back in time.

3. So, at the Quantum Level, black holes have the most amount of the smallest particles, and stars have more than planets--and planets have more than moons.

4. Such particle behavior could explain why gravity exists on planets, stars, and throughout black holes.

5. So to physically test the ML Paradox, all one needs to do is see if smaller particles are slower than larger particles, see if even smaller particles are inert (or frozen in place), and see if the smallest particles travel back in time--to prove this last part, I guess you could check rates of vanishing particles and see if even smaller particles vanish at faster rates than larger ones. However, to test this theory one needs to go over the research of a large particle collider.

6. Plus, to prove that the smallest particles time travel into the past, the more smaller particles disappear (after being created: like inside a large particle collider), the more there will be an increase in the gravitational field surrounding such a proximity. Perhaps, large particle collider data can prove this as a fact.

7. There exists a suction like force that is created whenever one of these smallest particles disappears and travels backwards in time (leaving a void) which causes suction in its space-time surroundings. This suction creates, along with many other similar suctions, what we know as gravity.

[Plug the bottom of your bathroom sink and fill it to the top with water. Then open the bottom plug and watch a whirlpool of water drain down. This is a better way to view how gravity works than a marble spinning around a depression experiment.]

Note: For where do our smallest subatomical parts go? I believe they must travel into the distant past.

8. It is also possible that matter traveling into the past becomes anti-matter. Such a large collection of anti-matter may collide with matter at the beginning of the universe creating the Big Bang.

On Leibniz and Monads

Because all things in the universe (according to the Koran 13:8) are finite, a universe made up of a finite amount of connecting monads, based roughly on Leibniz's infinite model of monads, and the modern idea of the fabric of space-time, are what causes all things (e.g. subatomic particles) that are larger than the spaces between each connecting monad, to not endlessly descend (or melt away) into limbo. Now this space-time monad-fabric stops larger particles (and most objects in the universe) from melting away into nothing: thereby keeping their physical form. Whatever particles, no matter how large or how small, that can slip between this monad-fabric of space-time, which is comprised of very many monads (but not Leibniz's theory of an infinite number of monads) will travel backwards in time as anti-matter, to the beginning of the Big Bang, where those particles will collide with matter, helping create the Self-Creating universe. And I believe this process of backwards time travel of particles (and matter versus anti-matter) is how God (in his infinite omniscience) created the finite Self-Creating universe that we live in.

Why doesn't all matter shrink and dissipate into nothingness? And what about Black Holes?

There exists a universal net of 4th dimensional space-time fabric. This universal net is made up and connected by a countless amount of very miniscule, connecting monads. This fabric stops matter from completely dissipating into nothingness by holding matter back and keeping it in its present state. A black hole is where this space-time fabric has been torn apart. So in a black hole, larger material, that could not have made it past the universal net (comprised of monads) outside of the black hole, is crushed and sent back to the beginning of the universe (or Big Bang) as anti-matter that will collide with the normal matter of the primordial universe in the moments before the Big Bang.

My definition of the infinite:

1. Must be the greatest amount.

2. Cannot be more than one type of thing.

3. Cannot be divisible.

4. Cannot exist in finite time. And must exist in no time.

5. Must be equally the same throughout.

6. And cannot exist along side anything else no matter how far or how near.

*This is only how a finite being can interpret the infinite, however. Like in the book Flatland, a Mr. Circle (or Mr. Square) cannot comprehend Mr. Sphere's universe but from his own inferior point of view.

How do I know all reality is not caused by my mind?

I am not all knowing, and I am not all powerful. Something created me and my surroundings. Therefore, I am not alone.

How do I know God is not nature (or the universe)?

Because I (a part of the universe, and a part of nature) am not God.

I wrote this previously in the 613 SAYINGS:

"How can God make imperfect things and remain perfect?" What is more perfect? An infinitely perfect God that can create imperfect things and remain infinitely perfect, or a God that makes something imperfect and is no longer perfect? Rather God is perfect and supremely perfect.

[For God is the beginnning and the end. Meaning, he is the first and the infinite. Plus, if he is all knowing (or can see the future with 100% accuracy) then that must mean he is infinite in thought. I discuss this later in this book when I talk about Carneades and his method.]

Two versions of the Self-Creating universe can be held at the same time for Christians and Atheists

1. God, in the beginning, grabbed future matter to create the Big Bang. And he allowed the doors to be opened to allow future matter to flow into the past.

2. The universe is Self-Creating even if, according to atheists: God doesn't exist--which is something I don't believe to be true.

--Man has a finite and linear-time mindset. So, therefore, it is next to impossible for him to understand the infinite and cyclical-time. This is why man's understanding of the Self-Creating universe is very difficult for him to comprehend.

Note on 1927 Heisenberg Theory and the Monad-Fabric:

[The reason subatomic particles in the universe are unpredictable (but larger groups of objects, like planets and comets, in the universe are predictable), is because of the very fact that the smallest universal particles, slipping through the monad-fabric of spacetime, have a direct gravitational influence over their larger particle cousins (meaning: subatomic particles) that do not fall through the monad-fabric, by being in the same proximity of space with one another and by having some type of minuscule mass. Reflective gravity waves are also produced by the smallest particles passing through (and creating a wake through) the monad-fabric and by heading backwards in time. For the larger an object is, the more predictable it becomes: because those smallest particles, that pass through the monad-fabric, are too small to physically (or gravitationally) influence and affect larger types of material objects (like comets, or planets, etc.) throughout the universe. The great interaction between subatomic particles and (the smallest particles passing through the monad-fabric) ruins the predictability of subatomic particles throughout the universe. Plus, the smallest particles, passing backwards through time, cause temporal ripples in spacetime, that make their larger subatomic cousins all the more unpredictable.]

Note: The question now is what do the smaller particles travel through to get to the past once they slip past the monad-fabric of spacetime? I believe there must be conduits, like wormholes, that are used for the smallest particles to get to the primordial beginning of the universe. When such conduits get too large, they form black holes.

Further note: Based on the diagram below, the conduits, that are like wormholes, that allow matter to travel backwards in time, could just exist inside the skin of both balloons. There is no need for there to be more universe, outside both balloons, for wormholes to exist.

Copyright 2015 M.L.

The End.

[Copyright Michael Llenos 2000-2015]