Copyright Michael Llenos 2000-2016

Part Two: Part A Proof of God: A New Cosmological Argument


Section One:

What are we certain of? The philosopher Rene Descartes said that we can be certain we are thinking beings. His famous statement in Latin is 'cogito/ ergo/ sum', meaning, I think/ therefore/ I exist. We also know that we each have limitations in our body and mind: that we are of finite substance. The opposite of finite is the infinite so we wonder about the infinite, which is God, and we wonder: What does God want me to do in life?

Section Two:

1) Before we try to answer this question it would be advantageous to our method of thought to give proofs for God's existence. One of the strongest proofs for God's existence is St. Thomas Aquinas' First Cause of the Universe or what is also called the cosmological argument.

2) The First Cause of the Universe is that cause which can independently exist, act and create prior to anything else--while everything else in the Universe needs prior help to exist, act and create; proving such things are finite by nature and therefore cannot be the First Cause of the Universe.

3) To prove that God is the First Cause of the Universe we must deduct what possibly could also be a First Cause of the Universe. Or in another way of saying it: what could also have created the Universe? Possible candidates include things that make up the Universe, like: time, space, matter and motion, which are the basic elements and building blocks of the Universe. If we can prove that these four components are finite in nature then they did not create the Universe. Meaning, there was a point where: time, space, matter and motion did not exist before. They therefore need a creator and that creator is God.

Section Three:

1) First we will discuss time and why it is finite in nature. Time's finite property is based on the present and that additional time cannot be added to an infinite amount of time in the past. The present adds time to the past at every moment. An addition of time is not possible for an infinite past since the infinity of time's past would be that time which no greater time exists. And since time adds to itself in the present, time cannot have an infinite past. And furthermore, since we exist in the present, we can never reach an end in the future but only reach towards that future forever. Meaning: because time is finite it naturally has no end; and, since time is finite, it has a finite beginning.

2) Diagram: Timeline of a hypothetical infinite past:

<----- infinite past ------------present-----(plus one time)----future----------<--

Because (plus one time) (plus one time) (plus one time) (plus one time) etc. is added to an infinite past through the present, an infinite past doesn't exist because you cannot add anymore time to an already infinite amount of time.

Section Four:

1) Now we will discuss space, matter and motion and their finite natures. For space to be infinite in nature it needs an infinite amount of spatial area since space is not a single distance but branches out in a three dimensional Universe, and an infinite space would be that space which has no greater amount of space. This is cancelled out by matter since matter takes up pockets of space and fills up the voids in space.

2) And if matter were another type of space, there would exist more space (or less space) through addition or subtraction in each piece of matter, making space unequal with one another, which would prove it is finite since some space would be greater than some other space. Meaning there would be a potentiality of more or less space causing a falsehood that no greater space can exist since space can only be infinite in nature if it is equal in substance and to its most perfect degree.

3) Matter is finite because it cannot act without time. If it could, it would be God and not finite matter. The same arguments on space can be used for non-infinite matter no matter what their ratios to each other are in the Universe. And although we don't know the exact dimensions of the Universe, for our argument it is enough to argue that the natures of space and matter are finite and not infinite.

4) Now motion is what matter does in space relative to time's present, so it cannot exist without time. And since time is finite, like we said, motion began after time started, making motion also finite. Some, however, state that time is motion. Either way, motion and time are both finite.

5) The entire argument of space, time and matter as infinite; while remaining space, time or matter is fallacious--since such a thing that is infinite would be infinite in nature. Therefore space, time and matter cannot be God.

6) And a time that would create the present would automatically become finite and be unable to create anymore, just as what would happen if space or matter created each other. And time creating matter or space before it created itself would be ridiculous. A space or matter that created time, which it would have to do first since they would have to remain infinite (so time could be created), before they created their matter or space counterpart, which would turn them finite; would be creating them from design, or would have the infinite power of creation since they are not analogous in nature and therefore would be God and not space or matter. Time would also have to be another being besides time if time created itself since time wouldn't be the present. And that infinite being would be God and not time. And if space, matter or time were God instead of themselves, then they would not become finite by creating something finite since God is that being which no greater can exist and so God remains infinite forever.

7) This whole argument above about space, time, matter or motion being infinite at one point in time is also fallacious. For the infinite is that which no greater being can exist. Meaning the infinite cannot create something and because of that something become finite or non-infinite. And if the infinite is that which no greater can exist, then the infinite can create finite things and exist in a finite Universe and still remain infinite. Nothing can cause it to become less perfect than itself. So the infinite cannot degrade in any way no matter what it creates. And space, time, matter and motion are finite things. Plus, it is ridiculous to believe that space, time, matter and motion would exist as they do now if time didn't exist. These four components are dependent on time. God is infinite so he does not need time to exist.

8) And the only practical way: space, time, matter, or motion could be infinite is if they had infinite thought. But then they would be God and not space, time, matter or motion.

Section Five:

1) Now that we have answered the proofs of God's existence we must now ask again the question: What does God want me to do in life? Since we know about God in our thoughts and since our thoughts lead to speech and actions, God probably bases his judgments on our ideas, speech and actions concerning God. And since we live in communities God probably judges what we say and do in those communities as well, and not just with those communities but with other individuals.

2) So the wise person looks at the most ancient and legitimate of books written on a monotheistic belief system only, that is the Bible and its books (since they are the most ethical and ancient of civilized documents concerning monotheism), and acts on their instructions for piety since you must base your future on God's perfection and on his justice. And justice has always been introduced in history when there exists one or more persons in any given place or time.

3) God looks at mankind and judges us. But we cannot judge because we don't know all of the facts. We can only judge by inference which is infinitely weak when it is placed against God's perfection and his perfection in judgment. Meaning there will come a day when God judges mankind because God is both perfect and perfectly just. In addition, the things needed for a person to become righteous in the Bible are based on some of the nicest and easiest things you can possibly do throughout your life, like the alms instruction given to us or warned us about in Matthew 25 and in Deuteronomy 15 and also the laws of the Ten Statements (or Ten Commandments). The Koran itself is filled with almsgiving instructions. However, I warn everyone to give food to the poor, as warned about in Matthew 25:31-46, before doing any other kinds of almsgiving not mentioned in Matthew 25:31-46. And because worshipping the Lord God, and feeding the poor and destitute are commanded or warned about by God (and Christ) in these texts, we cannot escape judgments concerning our lack of such helpful actions on the day that God (and Christ) judges all individual persons and nations. And if we have done any of these actions throughout our life we win everything that we can possibly win.

4) This positive thinking is impossible to ignore since you gain everything if you are ethical and believe in a Day of Judgment and act on that belief, most importantly through almsgiving, but lose everything if you don't act because you don't believe in such a day. Like is stated in Matthew 7:24-27. Meaning the wise person will strive for salvation through almsgiving, so that they can save themselves and not be condemned on the day of God's wrath.

Section Six:

1) As St. Thomas Aquinas implies, the First Cause of the Universe is one God. Following the monotheistic tradition, God can only be one God.

2) It makes sense that God's image is an infinite image and that it has always existed. God's image is made up of the infinite. The logic that makes "finite matter" and "finite space" infinite does not apply to God. Everything that we see in this world or Universe leaves us doubting its divinity. God's appearance leaves no doubt to his divinity. This is apparent at the end of the Book of Job: when God speaks to Job. It makes sense when you see God you will know it is God. Just like Christ teaches us that when he returns everyone will know that he has returned. Just as it is stated in Matthew 24:24-27.

3) The infinite image of God is spoken of in the Book of Daniel 7:9 in the Bible.

4) And since we are made in God's image, it is possible that there are other things in this Universe that are also made in God's image. And it is the Book of Genesis that speaks about a creation in the beginning, a creation that is good and therefore connected in some way with God and his infinite goodness.

Notes: The refutation of repeating Timelines and separate Universes

1) If time were a circle, the "present" would have to start somewhere in that circle since, as we have previously said: the "present" wouldn't have an infinite past. And with each successive addition of time in that circle of time, there would be a nullification of a non-linear timeline since time would consist of multiple connected loops instead of one circular rotation. If multiple "presents" exist at the same time, they would actually be multiple Universes and not multiple "presents" existing at the same time.

(A) For there does exist a vast (but not infinite) amount of presents, just as there exists a vast amount of time; however, two or more presents cannot exist in the same time period, although objects can travel in and out of a present time period. For if two or more presents existed in the same time period, they would be two or more separate Universes instead of two or more presents in the same time period that are in the same Universe. And as finite beings it is impossible for us to measure the length of each present.

(B) Some may try to refute the above through the physics of relativity. E.g. if a rocket ship and its crew were passing by a space station we were on, and the rocket ship was traveling towards the speed of light, we would notice the rocket ship crew (through the rocket ship window) moving slower. So that would equate to two presents in the same time period. My rebuttal would be that since space-time is warped, the rocket ship is transitioning from the current present to a future present. And I believe there exists barriers between presents. However, it was previously said that all finite objects must exist in a present. So the rocket ship could not be in a physical limbo. But it must at least be stretched between two presents since space-time is warped. E.g. 90% to 10% and 70% to 30% and 50% to 50% and 30% to 70% and 10% to 90% and etc. or until the full transition is made.

2) And for all of those Universes each Universe would have to have a beginning and a "present" for each Universe and for all of them collectively. And since the first note is true there would only be possible a linear timeline for each individual dimension of space and for its entirety. Multiple linear Universes are possible. But since there is only one God, there most likely exists only one Universe. And even if our Universe has different layers of space and dimension, they are most likely joined in some way.

3) A circular (or time looping Universe) and unconnected multiple Universes would most likely not exist because it would be disturbing to the community of life in the Universe (and their political dealings) and for the spreading and relevance of Universal monotheism and for the goals of the divine.

4) And besides time must always be linear since every successive theoretical Universe adds one more Universal "time line" to its past, making (if that were true) time not really looping but linear in condition. And time would become even more linear with each new repetition. And any exception of the timeline would make it linear and produce a chain reaction of linear events. So the entire concept of an exact time repeating Universe would be absurd since time moves in a linear fashion (because of its history) anyway. Time moves more linear with each present moment added to the past.

5) Only God can make time go in a circle against our logic. However, if time were circular, according to human logic, time would most likely be connected loops because of the addition of past loops. But these sorts of timelines would be a waste of time, matter and space--even for the opinion of a finite being. And since God is good, omnipotent and omniscient: there must exist only linear time.

6) What happened before the creation of the Universe?

There are many possibilities. God could have created and looked over "infinite time" (through his infinite thought), which would be "infinite time" without a "present" but could still follow a divine plan of righteousness. Or he could have looked over "infinite time", which may have been righteous "infinite time", after creating the first foundation of the Universe--meaning the "present". These and many other options are up to the Creator's choice, so I do not believe basic logic can have a definite answer here.

7) How does God know Everything and how is he Omnipotent?

We may never know the answer to this question. But that doesn't mean we cannot theorize. It makes sense that only God who is omnipotent and omniscient could only exist before the "present" was created and only he created the "present" and the Universe. The key is the "present". Only the infinite can exist in the "present" and outside it. Everything that is finite exists in the "present". I believe God knows everything because the very nature of the infinite, to exist outside of the "present", accounts for everything. But we cannot understand this to any great degree because we are finite creatures. I believe "time travel", into the past, can occur but only through the power of God since only God can exist outside of the "present", and only he has the power to move an object to a past timeline, or to transition an object from its current present to a past present.

Copyright Michael Llenos 2000-2014